Disease control through fungicides remains an important means to protect crops from fungal diseases and to secure harvest. Plant pathogenic fungi, especially Zymoseptoria tritici, have developed resistance against most currently used active ingredients, reducing or abolishing their efficacy. While target site modification is the most common resistance mechanism against single modes of action, active efflux of multiple drugs is an emerging phenomenon in fungal populations reducing additionally fungicides’ efficacy in multi drug resistant strains. We have investigated the mutations responsible for increased drug efflux in Z. tritici field strains. Our study reveals that three different insertions of repeated elements in the same promoter lead to multi drug resistance in Z. tritici. The target gene encodes the membrane transporter Mfs1 responsible for drug efflux, the promoter inserts inducing its overexpression. These results underline the plasticity of repeated elements leading to fungicide resistance in Z. tritici.
Omrane, S., C. Audéon, A. Ignace, C. Duplaix, L. Aouini, G. Kema, A.-S. Walker & S. Fillinger (2017). Plasticity of the MFS1 Promoter Leads to Multidrug Resistance in the Wheat Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. mSphere 2: pii: e00393-00317.