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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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UMR ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes

Analysis and modelling of the impact of foliar diseases on Crops: towards the identification of tolerance traits, either varietal or agronomic, in wheat

Marie-Odile Bancal, Pierre Bancal, François Collin (PhD student)

The objectives are to evaluate the quantitative losses in biomass and yield as well as in quality (protein content) that foliar diseases of field crops causes in interaction with abiotic stresses.The response of the plant to diseases is discussed at various levels of organization (tissue, organ, plant and covered). Adequate characterization of the symptoms of major foliar diseases allows a robust correlation of damage to the remaining green surface on the corresponding leaf. Damage functions due the foliar diseases "brown rust and Septoria tritici blotch" were set at the leaf scale and integrated at the crop scale only considering the distribution of green area on the four top leaves (1D model). This model predicts properly growth and yield losses in diseased wheat crops by only taking into account the loss of green area per leaf layer to radiation interception and the contribution of pre-flowering reserves and was validated on contrasted growth conditions (France and Argentina). More recently, brown rust was characterized and modeled as an additional sink using the model developed by Bancal and Soltani (2002). To extend this modeling frame and predict in the future both the agronomic and physiological tolerance capacity of various genotypes of wheat, the interplay between sink strength and source capacity needs to be further analyzed and formalized to identify tolerance traits in genotypes as well as to account for earliest epidemic.

Ongoing research

Three lines of research are being developed:

(i) at the plant scale, disruptions in nitrogen fluxes and induced senescence by diseases are studied in relation to the source-sink interplay; this leads us to analyze the determinants of nitrogen fluxes in healthy plants (BreedWheat project, coll. B Andrieu )

 (ii) at the crop scale, damage functions in case of brown rust were integrated into a DSSAT model type (CERES-Wheat, coll. BioAtm EGC). This model was used to assess, on a regional scale, environmental or consequential risks to climate change (coll. EGC BioAtm L Huber). This work is ongoing in the CLIF project (metaprogram ACAFF).

(iii) Genetic and agronomic traits leading to crop tolerance to stress.

Previously, genetic variability either of plant or pathogen was poorly investigated. The double constraint on pesticide use (Ecophyto 2018) and climate change results in increased frequency and intensity of both biotic and abiotic stresses on crops. Thus breeders find a renewed interest in identifying traits that minimize the host damage to a given level of symptoms, that is to say, tolerance. This research does not distinguish a priori genetic origin and / or agronomic traits morphological, physiological or phenological leading to tolerance. In this context, the establishment of a multisite and pluriannual database (MAP "to stress Tolerance", 2008-2011) was set and led to a first analysis of varietal tolerance to Septoria and nitrogen. This database was used for the construction of several indicators characterizing the overall response of varieties to biotic and abiotic stress. Based on the relationship between yield and Healthy Area Duration (HAD), these indicators allow to the following components of genotype behavior in a given condition of environment and practice: yield potential, sensitivity to stress and tolerance to stress, either generic (related to potential) or specific. Coupled to indirect measures of HAD using high throughput phenotyping methods, this first approach will identify the main traits involved in varietal tolerance by the mean of radiation interception variations. As various authors suggest that tolerance is a combination of low partial effects tolerance traits, a statistical modeling approach is currently being conducted to identify the varietal traits involved in the expression of tolerance in our database. A complementary approach is also ongoing thanks to interdisciplinary collaborations (F. Collin PhD thesis, coll. Univ. of Nottingham) relies on the conception and implementation of an ecophysiological model to 1) identify the sensitivity of the components of the various candidates tolerance traits, 2) identify possible trade-off between traits, 3) search for optimal combinations of traits maximizing tolerance either in each environment (climate, practices) or in all environments.

See also

Publications

[6]  Robert C., Bancal M-O, Nicolas P., Lannou C., Ney B., 2004b. Analysis and modelling of effects of leaf rust and Septoria tritici blotch on wheat growth. Journal of Experimental Botany,55(399), pp1-16.

[7] Robert C., Bancal M-O, Ney B., Lannou C., 2005. Changes in wheat leaf photosynthesis due to leaf rust with respect to lesion development and leaf nitrogen status. New Phytologist 165(1), 227-241.

[8] Robert C, Bancal M-O, Lannou C, Ney B. 2006. Quantification of the effects of Septoria tritici blotch on wheat leaf gas exchange with respect to lesion age, leaf number, and leaf nitrogen status. Journal of Experimental Botany 57(1): 225 - 234.

[9] Bancal M-O, Robert C, Ney B., 2007. Accounting for wheat crop growth and yield losses by accelerated green leaf layer losses due to late leaf rust and blotch epidemics. Annals of Botany 100 : 777-789.

[10] Bancal M-O, Roche R ., Bancal P., 2008. Nitrogen yield largely depends on post-anthesis N uptake in wheat crops suffering or not from late foliar diseases. Annals of Botany 102 : 579-590.

[11] Roche R, Bancal MO, Gagnaire N, Huber L, 2008. Potential impact of climate change on brown wheat rust: a preliminary study based on biophysical modelling of infection events and plant-pathogen interactions. Aspects of Applied Biology 88 : 135-142

[12] Frézal L., Robert C., Bancal M-O, Lannou C., 2009. Local dispersal of leaf rust and wheat canopy structure. Phytopathology 99 (10):1216-1224.

[13] Serrago RA, Carretero R, Bancal MO, Miralles DJ, 2009. Foliar diseases affect the eco-physiological attributes linked with yield and biomass in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). European Journal of Agronomy 31(4): 195-203.

[14] Carretero R, Serrago RA, Bancal MO, Perello A E, Miralles DJ, 2010. Wheat absorbed radiation and radiation use efficiency as affected by foliar diseases in relation to their vertical position in the canopy. Field Crops Research 16: 184-195

[15] Serrago RA, Carretero R, Bancal MO, Miralles DJ, 2011. Grain weight response to foliar diseases control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Field Crops Research 120(3): 352-359.

[16] Carretero R, Bancal MO, Miralles DJ, 2011. Wheat absorbed radiation and radiation use efficiency as affected by foliar diseases in relation to their vertical position in the canopy. European Journal of Agronomy 31(4): 195-203.

[17] Bancal MO, Hansart A, Sache I, Bancal P. 2012 - Modeling fungal sink competitiveness with grains for assimilates in wheat infected by a biotrophic pathogen. Annals of Botany 110(1): 113-123.

[18]  BenSlimane R, Bancal P, Suffert F, Bancal MO.2012 - Localized septoria leaf blotch lesions in winter wheat flag leaf do not accelerate apical senescence during the necrotrophic stage. Journal of Plant Pathology94(3): 543-553

[19] BenSlimane R, Bancal P, Bancal MO.2013 - Down-regulation by stems and sheaths of grain filling with mobilized nitrogen in wheat. Field Crops Research140: 59–68

[20] Ney B, Bancal MO, Bancal P, Bingham I, Foulkes J, Gouache D, Paveley NP, Smith JD, 2013 – Crop architecture and crop tolerance to fungal diseases and insect herbivory. Mechanisms to limit crop losses. European Journal of Plant Pathology135:561–580.

[21] Launay M, Caubel J, Bourgeois G, Huard F, Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri I, Bancal MO, Brisson N, 2014. Climatic indicators for crop infection risk: application to climate change impacts on five major foliar fungal diseases in Northern France. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 179:147-158

[22] Bancal P., Bancal M.O., Collin F., Gouache D., 2015. Identifying traits leading to tolerance of wheat to septoria tritici blotch Field Crops Research 180, 176–185