To examine the interactions and trade-offs appearing between ecosystem services, ECOSYS seeks to integrate all services addressed, at scales relevant to the envisaged management measures (agroecosystems or territories). The consideration of an extended spatial and temporal field implies extension of the concerned domain of the models from a plot to a territory. These integration approaches are at the base of spatial ecotoxicology and biogeochemistry approaches, with the integration of inter-plot transfers. The key achievements were as follows:
➢ Space and time integration. The relevant scales for ECOSYS range from the plot to the region (cropping systems, farms and landscapes). The time scale ranges from days to several decades, through the annual crop cycle or multi-year crop succession. Original developments have been proposed in which the outputs of models at fine resolutions (soil aggregate, leaf, architectural models of plants) are used to estimates contaminant transfer and impacts at larger scales. Two examples of the achievements in this context are (1) a modeling work of pesticides at the sheet scale to consider pesticides in transfer models (N. LIchiheb's thesis) and (2) the development of NitroScape, a tool coupling a set of models for describing the nitrogen cascade at the landscape scale (Escapade, led by J.L. Drouet). Other activities related to the use of observation devices (SOERE PRO, ICOS) allowed acquisitions in different agropedoclimatic contexts and/or long-term chronic measurements.
➢ One of the key achievements was also the coordination of a LabEx BASC project ASSETS (coordinated by B. Gabrielle and P. Garnier, 2015-2020) “ASSessing Ecosystem services in Transitioning agro-ecosystemS” in the context of the Saclay plateau, submitted to changes in land use and management, with a particular focus on
(i) pressures from urbanization and (ii) the shift to agroecological practices.
➢ Multi-criteria integration for evaluations of a service network. The most successful integration exercise was made during the development of multi-criteria evaluation approaches for services rendered by wastes recycling as part of Obriot's thesis work (SNOWMAN and PROLEG projects led by Sabine Houot). All the indicators characterizing the different services have been aggregated, making it possible to compare different scenarios.
➢ Integration at the level of cropping systems. Joint consideration of the environmental and health impacts of pesticides at the level of a cropping system was proposed in the Lammoglia’s thesis and in the ECOPEST and PERFORM projects led by Laure Mamy. This work was conducted as part of the accompanying Ecophyto plan. In another field, the comparison of alternative nitrogen source insertion scenarios (OWP, legumes) is one of the outputs of the work carried out within UMT Alter'N.
All of this work moves in the direction of establishing a link between production systems, farming practices and the functioning of agroecosystems (biological functioning, environmental impacts) and providing feedback regarding "impact assessment - practice modification". These activities, managed by Patricia Garnier and Benoît Gabrielle, are mainly carried out by the Soil and Eco&Phy teams (with more than 70 publications in each team), and 13 publications are co-signed by at least two different teams.