Transversal axis contributing to the regulation of environmental compartment quality service: dynamics and effects of contaminants in agroecosystems
This axis focuses on assessment of the environmental impacts of contaminants in agroecosystems. This evaluation involves studying and modeling the processes implied in the fate of contaminants and the effects of these contaminants on the bio-physico-chemical functioning of agroecosystems.
The objectives of this transversal axis were as follows:
- Develop integrated approaches to account for interactions between different components of agroecosystems (plants, soil organisms).
- Consider the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum as part of the impact assessment, taking into account the physicochemical mechanisms involved and the linkages between biogeochemical processes and transfers.
- Investigate the effect of low concentrations and exposure durations and the effect of long-term contaminant mixtures.
- Propose approaches to integrate the evaluation of impacts of contaminants (soil, air and water quality, biological effects) in the choices made for agroecosystem management, while considering the causal pressure- impact link of the contaminants.
- Develop and adapt analytical monitoring and instrumented sites to take into account the origins of contaminants and their fate (pesticides in crop protection, contamination through aerial deposition, pharmaceutical products, contaminants associated with recycled OWPs).
- Explore the modulation of effects according to the spatial organization of the landscape. The highlights achievements were as follows:
➢ Projects addressing the fate and effects of contaminant cocktails (IMPEC, CEMABS project).
➢ Improvement and development of in situ metrology and analysis methods for contaminants and their degradation products (CEMABS, Pharma-PRO projects).
➢ Setting up a joint project considering pesticide fate at the landscape scale (RESCAPE, carried out by Céline Pelosi) and the emergence of the ecotoxicology theme of the landscape with the conception of a recruitment profile of a CR (Colette Bertrand, 2017).
➢ The development of exposure models at different scales (from the profile to the landscape), integrating atmospheric transfer modules, using INRA's modeling platforms: Sol Virtuel and OpenFluid (MIPP project).
➢ Evaluation of innovative cropping systems designed to reduce the use of pesticides, by taking into account environmental impacts (PERFORM and ECOPESTt projects, coordinated by Laure Mamy).
➢ Development of a tool for estimating the environmental behavior of organic contaminants based on their molecular properties: Typol.
This axis is managed by Isabelle Lamy and Pierre Benoit and is mainly co-driven by the Ecotox team (72 articles, representing 62% of the production of the team’s publications) and Soil (65 articles representing 28% of the production). Linkage with the Eco&Phy team is carried out through the consideration of atmospheric contaminants and the atmospheric transfer-deposition of certain contaminants. This axis shows the greatest transversality among all axes, as revealed by the co-signature of articles between at least two teams (24 articles, representing more than half of the articles co-signed between the teams in the unit).