Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal AgroParisTech

Welcome to ECOSYS

UMR ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes

RL4. Assessing ecosystem services provided by soils at different spatial scales

Nowadays, soils are no longer considered as simple production supports but as systems providing different services (supporting, regulating, provisioning and cultural services from MAE report, 2005). In that frame, the objectives of our research are first to identify the major determinants of the supply level of the different ecosystem services provided by soils, and second to develop the needed indicators that we have to define, build or adapt for each context. Finally, we use ecosystem services as multi-criteria assessment tools in order to inform various stakeholders (policy makers, landowners, farmers) with the gains and losses of soil services resulting from changes in land-use, production system or agricultural practices. All this research is based on and renew the "historical" competences of the Soil team (biogeochemical cycles, fate of contaminants, modeling, and soil mapping) and also of the ECOSYS.

As a first example of final end-product and directly related with the first topic on organic waste recycling, Fiona Obriot developed in her thesis a multi-criteria tool, based on 7 indices of soil and crop qualities (soil fertility, soil biodiversity, soil biological activities, soil physical properties, soil contamination (“available” and “total”) and crop productivity) used as indicators of soil services (Fig. 15) to assess how exogenous factors or anthropogenic pressures, here a change from mineral to organic fertilisation by recycling organic waste products modifies the delivery of bundles of soil services. Regular application of organic waste products improves soil biodiversity, delivery of nutrients to crops, climate change mitigation and water regulation relative to mineral fertilization while maintaining or even increasing crop yield and quality with intensity generally depending on their characteristics. Organic amendments negatively affected the soil contamination index when considering total concentrations but increase the service of filtration / sequestration / storage / accumulation of toxics by soils as shown by decreased available fractions.

soil4

Similarly, Baptist Grard in his PhD (2017) on the development of urban agriculture on green roofs, showed that the technosols, made of organic and mineral wastes, provided several ecosystem services (e.g. food production, runoff mitigation, organic wastes recycling) and were of considerable importance for the regulation of the amount of rainwater going back to urban networks (the technosoils made of compost and crushed wood, retained 74 to 84% of the incoming rainfall water, Grard et al., 2018).

Finally, in the context of the ASSETS project (2015-2019, LabEx BASC) concerning ecosystem services provided by soils during the increasing urbanisation of the Saclay plateau, we showed that the intensity of the water supply service to plants, quantified through the available water capacity (AWC), varied with the intensity but also the location of soil sealing. With a loss of service ranging from 19% to 35%, taking soil quality into account can limit the loss of ecosystem services associated with their waterproofing (Fig. 16).

soil4-1

Our research has linked with the meta-program of INRA EcoServ which funded the international workshop organized by Philippe Baveye (Workshop on Soil Ecosystem Services, St Rémy-les-Chevreuse, December 15-16, 2015) and on the French Evaluation of Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services (EFESE) from which the methods were used in the project ASSETS. They were developed in collaboration with various laboratories in the Paris region such as HBAN, LSCE, ESE, SADAPT, Terres Inovia, Agronomy units, but also other French laboratories such as Genial, LSE, AgroImpact, Agrotransfert.

The actors of the territory are also involved in our projects via organizations such as EPAPS and Terre et Cité for projects concerning the Plateau de Saclay, or companies like Culture en Ville, Elisol, Topager, Bio Yvelines Service, La boîte à champignons for the urban microfarm project.

We also contributed to international assessments of ecosystem services by contributing as lead author to the first assessment of biodiversity and ecosystem services of Europe and Central Asia led by the International Panel of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES, 2018).

Scientific stategy and project

One of the key-point towards the use of the soil services framework in decision-making is to be able to quantify the delivery of soil services with both sufficient accuracy and convenience. We thus built a field experiment dedicated to the quantification of the actual delivery of some soil services, namely food and ground water production, global climate regulation by carbon sequestration and mediation of wastes and toxic substances of anthropogenic origin. Such quantifications will then be compared to alternative quantifications and assessments either through mechanistic, functional, statistical modeling or through expert judgement from the plot to the small agricultural area levels to find which way provides the best balance between accuracy and efficiency. Different methods of service evaluation like direct measurements, simulations with a soil-plant model and expert approaches will be compared (ASSETS Project of Saclay Plateau, post doc of Maha Chalhoub and PhD Pauline Choquet).

The use of the soil services framework as a multi-criteria assessment tool will also be extended to innovative production systems as urban microfarms within the SEMOIRS project. The goals are i) to identify the services they could provide to the city (biodiversity support, supply of food, water cycle regulation, climate and organic waste regulation as well as cultural services, i.e. landscape improvement) and ii) to help project leaders, urban planners and local authorities to design and manage this form of urban agriculture by maximizing the delivery of ecosystem services.

Finally, an integrated modeling will be implemented in the PROTERR project using the MAELIA platform to take into account both ecosystem services delivery and decision-making in the context of organic waste recycling (RL1). Different models will be used in the MAELIA platform to simulate cropping systems functioning and wastes production and fluxes. A wide range of indicators will be computed to perform a multicriteria assessment at different scales (from field to a small agricultural area), the spatial layers of which are likely to originate from the above-presented spatial approaches (RL3). The effect of decision making will be explicitly modelled (agent-based modeling) to test the effect of various regulations. This project will be carried out in collaboration with several laboratories studying organic wastes recycling and with a laboratory involved in multicriteria assessment of agricultural systems (LAE).

See also

Menichetti L., Houot S., van Oort F., Kätterer T., Christensen B.T., Chenu C., Barré P., Vasilyeva N.A., Ekblad A., 2014. Increase in soil stable carbon isotope ratio relates to loss of organic carbon: results from five long-term bare fallow experiments. Oecologia. Published online http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s00442-014-3114-4

Peth S., Chenu C., Leblond N., Mordhorst A., Garnier P., Nunan N., Pot V., Ogurreck M., Beckmann F., 2014. Localization of soil organic matter in soil aggregates using synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 78, 189-194. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.07.024

Barre P., Eglin T., Christensen B.T., Ciais P., Houot S., Katterer T., van Oort F., Peylin P., Poulton P.R., Romanenkov V., Chenu C., 2010. Quantifying and isolating stable soil organic carbon using long-term bare fallow experiments. Biogeosciences, 7, 11, 3839-3850 (open access). http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-3839-2010

Chenu C., Klumpp K., Bispo A., Angers D., Colnenne C., Metay A., 2014. Stocker du carbone dans les sols agricoles : évaluation de leviers d’action pour la France. Innovations Agronomiques, 37, 23-37. http://www6.inra.fr/ciag/content/download/5353/41503/file/Vol37-3-Chenu.pdf